Bandwidth CGI cgi-bin DomainName DNS E-mail FTP Gigabyte Host HTTP IPNumber ISP POP SpamorSpamming URL

How much stuff can you send through a connection. Usually measured in bits-per-second. A full page of English text is about 16,000 bits. A fast modem can move about 57,000 bits in one second. Full-motion full-screen video would require roughly 10,000,000 bits-per-second, depending on compression.

Common Gateway Interface: A set of rules that describe how a Web Server communicates with another piece of software on the same machine, and how the other piece of software (the CGI program) talks to the web server. Any piece of software can be a CGI program if it handles input and output according to the CGI standard.

The unique name that identifies an Internet site. Domain Names always have 2 or more parts, separated by dots. The part on the left is the most specific, and the part on the right is the most general. A given machine may have more than one Domain Name but a given Domain Name points to only one machine. For example, the domain names: and can all refer to the same machine, but each domain name can refer to no more than one machine. Usually, all of the machines on a given Network will have the same thing as the right-hand portion of their Domain Names ( in the examples above). It is also possible for a Domain Name to exist but not be connected to an actual machine. This is often done so that a group or business can have an Internet e-mail address without having to establish a real Internet site. In these cases, some real Internet machine must handle the mail on behalf of the listed Domain Name.

Domain Name System (DNS) is a very complex subject and we would not be able to adequately cover every aspect in a FAQ, below is a simplified outline.

  • A DNS Server provides 'name resolution service' which means that DNS Servers resolve names into IP addresses. Every computer on the Internet has a unique IP address (a series of four numbers separated by dots). A DNS Server is used to 'resolve' a name into an IP address (or vice versa). This protocol is necessary because humans can remember names easier than they can numbers.
  • A DNS Server is usually located on the network to which you are attached. If you are using an Internet Service Provider (ISP), your DNS Server is at your ISP. If you are using the network at your college or your office, you probably have a local DNS Server somewhere near you.

When you type "" into your web Browser, your Browser software sends that domain name to your local DNS Server. Whenever your local DNS Server runs into a domain name it doesn't recognize (something it hasn't looked up yet), it goes to the root DNS Servers to look it up. The root DNS Server will respond with a list of DNS Servers who are in charge of resolving the domain name. Whenever a machine is responsible for a domain name, it's referred to as the 'Authoritative' Server because it is the authority on that domain name. Your local DNS Server then sends another query to those 'Authoritative' DNS Servers, and usually gets an answer telling it what Server holds the information you require.

E-mail Electronic Mail: System can send text message(s), image data(s) or program(s), from one person to another via computer. FTP
File Transfer Protocol: A very common method of moving files between two Internet sites. FTP is a way to login to another Internet site for the purposes of retrieving and/or sending files. There are many Internet sites that have established publicly accessible repositories of material that can be obtained using FTP, by logging in using the account name "anonymous", thus these sites are called "anonymous ftp servers". FTP was invented and in wide use long before the advent of the World Wide Web and originally was always used from a text-only interface.

1 Gigabyte = 1024 Megabytes

Any computer on a network that is a repository for services available to other computers on the network. It is quite common to have one host machine provide several services, such as SMTP (email) and HTTP (web).

HyperText Transfer Protocol. It is transfer protocol which is used to transmit and receive contents including HTML between Web server and client (Web browser).

Internet Protocol Number: Sometimes called a dotted quad. A unique number consisting of 4 parts separated by dots, e.g. Every machine that is on the Internet has a unique IP number - if a machine does not have an IP number, it is not really on the Internet. Many machines (especially servers) also have one or more Domain Names that are easier for people to remember.

An inappropriate attempt to use a mailing list, or other web site as if it was a broadcast medium (which it is not) by sending the same message to a large number of people who didn't ask for it. The term probably comes from a famous Monty Python skit which featured the word spam repeated over and over.

Uniform Resource Locator. It's like an address on the Internet.

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Last-modified: 2013-01-17 (Thu) 15:45:25